"The Death of Sin in the Death of Jesus: Atonement Theology in the NT," by Ben Witherington (2010)
"The Scriptural Necessity of Christ's Penal Substitution," by Richard Mayhue, in The Master's Seminary Journal 20/2 (Fall 2009): 139-48.
"Penal Substitution in the Old Testament," by William Barrick, in The Master's Seminary Journal 20/2 (Fall 2009): 149-70.
"Penal Substitution in the New Testament: A Focused Look at First Peter," by Paul Felix, in The Master's Seminary Journal 20/2 (Fall 2009): 171-97.
"Penal Substitution in Church History," by Michael Vlach, in The Master's Seminary Journal 20/2 (Fall 2009): 199-214.
"Penal Substitution and Christian Worship," by Andrew Snider, in The Master's Seminary Journal 20/2 (Fall 2009): 215-30.
"Penal Substitution in Perspective: Re-Evaluating the Articulation and Application of the Doctrine," by Patrick Franklin, in McMaster Journal of Theology and Ministry 10 (2008–2009): 22–52.
"A Trinitarian Crucifixion: The Holy Spirit and Penal Substitution," by Rustin Umstaddt, a paper presented at the annual meeting of the ETS (2008).
"The Logic of Penal Substitution Revisited," by Oliver Crisp in The Atonement Debate: Papers from the London Symposium on the Theology of Atonement (2008), 208-27.
"Penal Substitution in Romans 3:25-26?," by Jarvis J. Williams, in The Princeton Theological Review (2007): 73-82.
"On the Penal Substitution Model of the Atonement," by Jianshe Kong, Ph.D. dissertaton, Brown University (2007).
"Articulating, Defending , and Proclaiming Christ Our Substitute," by Stephen Wellum, in The Southern Baptist Seminary Journal of Theology (Summer 2007).
"A History of the Doctrine of the Atonement, by Greg Allison, in The Southern Baptist Seminary Journal of Theology (Summer 2007).
"The Atonement in Isaiah's Fourth Servant Song," by Peter Gentry in The Southern Baptist Seminary Journal of Theology (Summer 2007).
"The Cross and Substitutionary Atonement," by Simon Gathercole in The Southern Baptist Seminary Journal of Theology (Summer 2007).
"Songs of the Crucified One: The Psalms and the Crucifixion," by Derek Tidball in The Southern Baptist Seminary Journal of Theology (Summer 2007).
"Christ Bore the Sins of Many: Substitution and the Atonement in Hebrews," by Barry Joslin in The Southern Baptist Seminary Journal of Theology (Summer 2007).
"The SBJT Forum: The Atonement Under Fire," by D. A. Carson, Thomas Schreiner, Bruce Ware and James Hamilton, in The Southern Baptist Seminary Journal of Theology (Summer 2007).
"The Atonement as Penal Substitution," by A. T. B. McGowan in Always Reforming: Explorations in Systematic Theology (2006).
"Nothing but the Blood," by Mark Dever, in Christianity Today (May 2006)
"Question…But isn’t “Penal Substitution” actually illegal (if not immoral)??," by Glenn Miller (2005).
"Can Punishment Bring Peace? Penal Substitution Revisited," by Stephen Holmes in Scottish Journal of Theology (2005)
"The Evangelical Alliance Atonement Symposium: Introductory Address," by David Hilborn (2005)
"Justice, Law, and Guilt," by Garry Williams (2005)
"Punished in our Place: A Reply to Steve Chalke on Penal Substitution," by Garry Williams (2005)
"Why Did Christ Die: A Symposium on the Theology of Atonement," by Sue Groom (2005)
"Swinburnian Atonement and the Doctrine of Penal Substitution," by Steven Porter in Faith and Philosophy (2004): 228-41.
"The Cross and Substitutionary Atonement" by Simon Gathercole in Scottish Bulletin of Evangelical Theology (2003)
“Rethinking the Logic of Penal Substitution,” by Steven Porter in Philosophy of Religion, ed. William Lane Craig, Michael Murray, and Daniel Howard-Snyder (Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh Press, 2001), 596–608.
"The Atonement in Scripture," by David Petersen, a paper delivered at Oak Hill College School of Theology (2000).
"Moral Faith and Atonement," by John Hare, a paper presented at Wheaton College (1996).
"De Jesu Christo Servatore: Faustus Socinus on the Satisfaction of Christ," by Alan Gomes, in The Westminster Theological Journal (1993).
"What Did the Cross Achieve? The Logic of Penal Substitution," by J I Packer (1974)
"The Atonement and Human Sacrifice," by David Dilling, in Grace Theological Journal (1971)
"Concerning The Necessity And Reasonableness Of The Christian Doctrine Of Satisfaction For Sin," by Jonathan Edwards, The Works of President Edwards in 4 volumes, vol. I, 582-611. (1740)
"Christ's Agony," by Jonathan Edwards, in The works of Jonathan Edwards, ed. Edward Hickman, II, 872ff. (1745)
Articles and Theses in Opposition to the PST
"Poena Satisfactoria: Locating Thomas Aquinas Doctrine of Vicarious Satisfaction in Between Anselmian Satisfaction and Penal Substitution," by John Joy, Master's Thesis, International Theological Institute (2010)
"Substitutionary Atonement and the Church Fathers: A Reply to the Authors of Pierced For Our Transgressions," by Derek Flood, in The Evangelical Quarterly (2010).
"Not Penal Substitution but Vicarious Punishment", by Mark Murphy, in Faith and Philosophy, 26:3 (2009) 253-73.
"A Participatory Model of the Atonement," by Tim Bayne and Greg Restall, in New Waves in Philosophy of Religion eds. Yujin Nagasawa and Erik Wielenberg (2009)
"The Incarnational Theory of Atonement," by Robin Collins (2009)
"The Cross and the Caricatures: a Response to Pierced for Our Transgressions," by N. T. Wright (2007)
"More Thoughts on Penal Substitution" by Scott McKnight (2006)
"Atonement," by Eleonore Stump, in Aquinas, pp. 427-54 (2003).
"Why Does Jesus' Death Matter," by S. Mark Heim, in The Christian Century [March 6, 2001]: 12-17."Do We Believe in Penal Substitution," by David Lewis, in Oxford Readings in Philosophical Theology: Trinity, Incarnation, and Atonement, ed. Michael Rea (1997).
"Old Testament Sacrifice and the Death of Christ," by John Goldingay, in Atonement Today, pp. 3-20 (1995).
“Paul’s Understanding of the Death of Jesus,” by James D.G. Dunn, in Reconciliation and Hope: New Testament Essays on Atonement and Eschatology Presented to L.L. Morris on his 60th Birthday (1974), pp.125-141.
"Atonement and 'Saving Faith,'" by Brian Gerrish, in Theology Today (1960)
"Justice," in Unspoken Sermons, Part 3 by George MacDonald (1867)
"The Rise of the Edwardean Theory of the Atonement: An Introductory Essay," Edwards Amas Parks in The Atonement: Discourses and Treatises (1859).